Air Pollution: A Tsunami in Nigeria

Air pollution is one of the biggest threats for the environment and affects everyone: humans, animals, crops, cities, forests, aquatic ecosystems. Here today we are going to look  in deep the causes, present air pollution rate in Nigeria and the most importantly, what are the possible solutions to tackle this treat to nature caused by the inhabitants of the earth?

Let’s begins with this; Water, I mean water. Yes, it is no longer enough simply to kill the bacteria contained in a water in order to make it drinkable, since the pollution produced by man has altered the very chemical composition of the natural water supply.


In 1392 King Charles VI of France published an edict that outlawed the emission of foul smelling gases in Paris.

Still on the agenda

A pollution effect.

Air pollution is caused by the presence in the atmosphere of toxic substances, mainly produced by human activities, even though sometimes it can result from natural phenomena such as volcanic eruptions, dust storms and wildfires, also depleting the air quality.

Nigeria produces more than 3 million tons of waste annually, and uncontrolled waste burning is one of the practices that contribute to deteriorating air quality. Almost every Nigerian is exposed to air pollution levels exceeding WHO guidelines and inflicting significant air pollution damage costs.

Air pollution was responsible for about a million premature deaths in Africa in 2016.
Nigeria has a mortality for air pollution of 307.4 for every 100,000 people, the second worst in all of Africa. More people die from air pollution in Nigeria than in South Africa, Kenya, and Angola, combined.

Air pollution is a critical risk factor for noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) worldwide, causing about 24% of all adult deaths from heart disease, 29% from lung cancer, 25% from stroke, and 43% from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Major sources of air pollution in Nigeria include tailpipe exhaust from cars and trucks, smoke from the open burning of residential trash, diesel generators, road dust, industry, and soot from the use of biomass-fuelled cookstoves indoors.

The air pollution levels in cities such as Lagos, Abuja, Port Harcourt, Kano, and in particular Onitsha, a port city on the bank of the Niger River in southern Nigeria, is still at health-damaging level.

Onitsha recorded the world’s worst levels of PM10 (particles of less than 10 micrometers) air pollutants in 2016 with an annual mean concentration of 594 micrograms per cubic meter (μg/m3 ). This was 30 times above the World Health Organization (WHO) annual guideline of 20 μg/m3 for PM10.

Causes of air pollution in Nigeria today

  • Combustion of fossil fuels, like coal and oil for electricity and road transport, producing air pollutants like nitrogen and sulfur dioxide.
  • Emissions from industries and factories, releasing large amount of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, chemicals and organic compounds into the air.
  • Agricultural activities, due to the use of pesticides, insecticides, and fertilizers that emit harmful chemicals
  • Waste production, mostly because of methane generation in landfills.

Nigerian government can control Air pollution through the following ways:

1. Renewable fuel and clean energy production

The most basic solution for air pollution is to move away from fossil fuels, replacing them with alternative energies like solar, wind and geothermal.

2. Energy conservation and efficiency

Producing clean energy is crucial. But equally important is to reduce our consumption of energy by adopting responsible habits and using more efficient devices.

3. Eco-friendly transportation

Shifting to electric vehicles and hydrogen vehicles, and promoting shared mobility (i.e carpooling, and public transports) could reduce air pollution.

4. Green building

From planning to demolition, green building aims to create environmentally responsible and resource-efficient structures to reduce their carbon footprint.

In addition, monitoring air pollution levels has become very important to detect pollution peaks, better control air pollution and eventually improve air quality.

To this end, learn how to  measure air quality ?

With measuring devices using laser-based technologies, chemiluminescence, flame ionization, etc. These devices are, for instance, located close to the traffic, far from the traffic and close to industrial zones. All the collected data are compiled into a value scale, called the
Air Quality Index (AQI).

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Reviving the Wakanda Spirit in Africa


Credit: Black Panther/ Marvel Studios.

You are in Wakanda now. Thanos will have nothing but dust and blood.

Wakanda , officially known the as Kingdom of Wakanda , is a small isolationist landlocked country located in Africa , surrounded by mountain ranges and a thick forest.

Map of Wakanda from Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe #1 (December 1983).
Art by Don McGregor.


As essential as the allure of the character the Black Panther is, the Kingdom of Wakanda, the fictional African city from which he hails, is just as meaningful to many of those attending. Wakanda is a hidden African city, never conquered by Europeans, with the world’s only source of Vibranium and more technologically advanced that the rest of the world. It is alleged the source of the Vibranium is a meteor strike and that the meteor contained the Soul Gem, one of the Infinity Stones integral to the plot of Avengers: Infinity War.

Why Wakanda Forever Is Bigger Than ‘Black Panther’


Let’s visit the old Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa , concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt . Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC (according to conventional Egyptian chronology ) with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes (often identified with Narmer ).

The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age , the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age .

An old Egyptian Map.

Egypt reached the pinnacle of its power in the New Kingdom, ruling much of Nubia and a sizable portion of the Near East , after which it entered a period of slow decline. During the course of its history Egypt was invaded or conquered by a number of foreign powers, including the Hyksos, the Libyans, the Nubians, the Assyrians , the Achaemenid Persians , and the Macedonians under the command of Alexander the Great . The Greek Ptolemaic Kingdom, formed in the aftermath of Alexander’s death, ruled Egypt until 30 BC, when, under Cleopatra , it fell to the Roman Empire and became a Roman province.

The success of ancient Egyptian civilization came partly from its ability to adapt to the conditions of the Nile River valley for agriculture. The predictable flooding and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced surplus crops, which supported a more dense population, and social development and culture. With resources to spare, the administration sponsored mineral exploitation of the valley and surrounding desert regions, the early development of an independent writing system , the organization of collective construction and agricultural projects, trade with surrounding regions, and a military intended to assert Egyptian dominance. Motivating and organizing these activities was a bureaucracy of elite scribes , religious leaders, and administrators under the control of a pharaoh, who ensured the cooperation and unity of the Egyptian people in the context of an elaborate system of religious beliefs.

The many achievements of the ancient Egyptians include the
quarrying, surveying and construction techniques that supported the building of monumental pyramids, temples, and obelisks ; a system of mathematics , a practical and effective system of medicine, irrigation systems and agricultural production techniques, the first known planked boats, Egyptian faience and glass technology, new forms of literature , and the earliest known peace treaty , made with the Hittites. Ancient Egypt has left a lasting legacy. Its art and architecture were widely copied, and its antiquities carried off to far corners of the world. Its monumental ruins have inspired the imaginations of travelers and writers for centuries. A new-found respect for antiquities and excavations in the early modern period by Europeans and Egyptians led to the scientific investigation of Egyptian civilization and a greater appreciation of its cultural legacy.

The pyramids of Giza are among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt.

Old Kingdom

The great pyramids of Gizah

Major advances in architecture, art, and technology were made during the
Old Kingdom , fueled by the increased agricultural productivity and resulting population, made possible by a well-developed central administration. Some of ancient Egypt’s crowning achievements, the Giza pyramids and Great Sphinx , were constructed during the Old Kingdom. Under the direction of the vizier , state officials collected taxes, coordinated irrigation projects to improve crop yield, drafted peasants to work on construction projects, and established a justice system to maintain peace and order.

Middle Kingdom

The kings of the Middle Kingdom restored the country’s stability and prosperity, thereby stimulating a resurgence of art, literature, and monumental building projects. Mentuhotep II and his Eleventh Dynasty successors ruled from Thebes, but the vizier Amenemhat I , upon assuming the kingship at the beginning of the Twelfth Dynasty around 1985 BC, shifted the kingdom’s capital to the city of Itjtawy , located in
Faiyum . From Itjtawy, the kings of the Twelfth Dynasty undertook a farsighted land reclamation and irrigation scheme to increase agricultural output in the region. Moreover, the military reconquered territory in Nubia that was rich in quarries and gold mines, while laborers built a defensive structure in the Eastern Delta, called the “Walls-of-the-Ruler “, to defend against foreign attack.

In 332 BC, Alexander the Great conquered Egypt with little resistance from the Persians and was welcomed by the Egyptians as a deliverer. The administration established by Alexander’s successors, the Macedonian Ptolemaic Kingdom, was based on an Egyptian model and based in the new capital city of Alexandria. The city showcased the power and prestige of Hellenistic rule, and became a seat of learning and culture, centered at the famous Library of Alexandria . The Lighthouse of Alexandria lit the way for the many ships that kept trade flowing through the city as the Ptolemies made commerce and revenue generating enterprises, such as papyrus manufacturing, their top priority.

Young people are the drivers of Africa’s economy and future. With eleven million youth expected to enter Africa’s labor market every year for the next decade, now is the time for urgent action to build and nurture the region’s human capital.

The above information was culled for motivation and for the propagation of change in the future of Africa’s youths, policy makers, and civil society to collectively focus in solving the Africa challenges , aspirations, and actions taken to help build the human capital of areas of digital transformation to building human capital, Africa’s development future, prepare for Africa’s digital future and developing the potential of the continent’s next generation.

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Nigerians welfare abroad

Over the years, 118 Nigerians have been killed in South Africa, while 13 out of these were killed by South African Police and on June 13, Mrs Elizabeth Ndubuisi-Chukwu, the Deputy Director-General of Chartered Insurance Institute of Nigeria was found dead in her hotel room in Johannesburg when attending the conference of the African Insurance Organization, AIO, in South Africa, also Nigerians were being attacked in Ghana and Togo, especially, Nigerian traders.

Is this the way Nigerians would be attacked or killed when the implementation of the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) agreement start?

It’s high time the Nigerian government to act seriously about the attacks on Nigerians residing in other countries, issuing a warning to those countries isn’t good enough, the safeguard of Nigerians and their properties should be discussed when signing other phases of the AfCFTA agreement. Also, Mr president should issue an Executive Order which will mandate Nigerian embassies abroad to protect Nigerians, Nigerian foreign missions don’t care about Nigerians.

In 2008 when I visited Singapore for vacation, I had a problem and I went to Nigeria’s High Commission for help, getting there, I was told that they can’t help and I went my way to solve my problem.

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Nigerian e-passports

The Machine Readable Passport, MRP, used by Nigerians before the coming of the Obasanjo administration was produced locally by the Nigerian Security Printing and Minting PLC, popularly called MINT. The MINT is the Nigerian Government’s official currency and other security documents printer but the NIS stopped to issue the MRPs to Nigerians after the launch of the e-passport in 2007.

When the Nigerian former President Olusegun Obasanjo paid a state visit to Malaysia in 2003 and visited Iris Corporation office where he witnessed a demonstration of the production of the e-passport, he was impressed by the security features of the e-passport. Instead of Obasanjo to return home and upgrade MINT to produce E-passport for Nigerians, he invited Iris Corporation to spearhead the implementation of Nigerian e-passport and ISTL was registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission on 20th May 2003 to help the country produce the e-passport. With that, ISTL entered into a Public-Private Partnership, PPP, with the Federal Government for the upgrading of Nigerian passport to e-passport.

Since then, Malaysia has been responsible for producing the Nigerian e-passports until this year when MINT signed MoU with ISTL to domesticate the production of international passports (e-passports), in which the e-passports will be printed locally.

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The effects of Rural-Urban Migration in Lagos, Nigeria

Every choice in this community is defined by the urgent need for survival. For the people of Badia, life is an unending struggle against the increasing challenges of hunger and poverty. They live in a country which ranks 152 out of 187 on the United Nations Human Development Index and which has one of the world’s highest birth rate.


Overpopulation has long been an issue for Nigeria. Thousands of people migrate from the countrysides and across Africa into Lagos daily, in search of work.

A cross section of busy Oshodi market in Lagos Nigeria.

The city’s rising population is putting massive pressure on housing, and the lack of it is the direct result of why places like Badia exists. Most of the people in Badia have left. They have moved on to other slums, like Ajegunle and Makoko. But some hard-pressed families are still in Badia today, either sleeping in the remains of their homes or struggling even to find space to lay their beds.

Getty image/Lagos, Nigeria.

In recent years, however, with shanties built on illegal grounds, demolition, and forced evictions have become fiercer and more regular at Badia.

According to Amnesty International, the State government demolished the homes of almost 10,000 of the slum’s population in February 2013 and September 2015 consecutively with a devastating loss of life and livelihood.“We have limited access to water, and sewage facility is non-existent. Most of all, some people who were petty traders have lost their businesses.

Causes Of Rural-Urban Migration

The factors that cause rural-urban migration are divided into two major groups known as PUSH or PULL factors. The push factors are those conditions in the rural areas that compel people to leave, while the pull factors are those things in the urban areas that attract people in the rural areas. These push and pull factors include the following:

1. Lack of Social Amenities

Absence of social amenities like good roads, electricity, pipe-borne water, hospitals etc. contribute in compelling people to leave the rural areas.

2. Availability of Recreational Facilities in the Urban Areas

Many people especially the youths leave rural areas to cities where they can find recreational facilities like stadia, swimming pools, cinemas, amusement parks etc.

3. Higher Education

The need for higher education make many people to migrate to urban areas where majority of our higher institutions like universities, polytechnics and colleges of education are located.

4. Employment Opportunities

Many people move to urban areas for meaningful employment opportunities that they might not have access to in rural areas.

5. Marriage

Newly married ladies whose husbands are in urban areas leave their base in order to go and live with their husbands.

6. Business Activities

Those in the rural areas who have business intentions move to urban areas where the business action is.

7. Natural Disaster

Natural disasters like outbreak of diseases, erosion, earthquake etc, may push people away from rural areas to cities.

8. Ostracism

If one is kept at arms length by members of his community for any reason, one of the options left to that person is to migrate to urban areas that is made up of people from different areas.

9. Political Reasons

A person may move from rural area to urban area considered as a point of political activities, in order to participate fully in politics.

Consequences of Rural-Urban Migration

1. Uneven Distribution of Population

The urban areas become densely populated at the expense of rural areas.

2. Congestion

Many urban areas are today congested as a result of mass movement of rural residents into them. More people are now chasing the few houses in urban areas which leads to increase in rents.

4. Escalation of Unemployment

Many unemployed people reject job offers in rural areas and move to cities thereby worsening the unemployment situation.

5. Increase in Crime Rate

Many unemployed people who moved away from the rural areas to cities with the hope of getting employment take to crime when their hopes are dashed in order to keep body and soul together.

6. Agriculture is Greatly Affected

The able-bodied people move to urban areas leaving children and the aged behind in the rural areas to practise agriculture.

7. Increase in Price of Goods

The presence of many people, especially the unproductive, unemployed in the cities, low agricultural productivity, etc, are some of the contributory factors to increase in price of goods.

8. Disparity in Development

The dense population in the urban areas attracts more government attention at the expense of sparse population in the rural areas.

9. More Business Activities in Urban Centres

Densely populated areas like our cities are the focus of business activities because demand is always higher than in sparsely populated areas of the countryside.

10. Increase in Political Malpractices

Political violence is higher in urban areas because of the presence of many unemployed youths from rural areas who constitute ready tools used by the politicians in achieving their atrocious and selfish political aims.

How to Solve the Problem of Rural-Urban Migration in Lagos, Nigeria

1. Provision of Social Amenities to Rural Areas

The availability of social amenities in rural areas will discourage many people from migrating to urban areas.

2. Establishment of Industries in Rural Areas

This will provide jobs to rural residents and discourage them from leaving to cities in search of jobs.

3. Provision of Recreational facilities

If recreational facilities like stadia, swimming pools, cinemas, amusement parks etc, are made available in rural areas, they will reduce the propensity of our youths to move to urban areas.

4. Establishment of Higher Institutions In the Rural Areas

This will discourage rural-urban migration in the quest for higher education which can now be obtained in the rural areas.

5. Improved Agricultural System

If this is done, agriculture will be more attractive and many school leavers will take it as their occupation and stay in the rural areas instead of migrating to urban areas in search of white-collar jobs that are scarce.

Read more:

1. Emmanuel Oboro: Cbjspotlight (2015):Online:

2. Maduawuchi(2015):NigeriaRural-Urban Migration: Causes, Consequences and Solutions, NigerianInfopedia:Online:

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Tales of a Hustler

In Yoruba (Baba has tribal marks),

Baba, good afternoon sir, can you go to Ikeja?

Presentation time knocking, rain falling. I had walked to the street entrance to flag down a cab. The network had been bad because of the rain. Couldn’t seem to connect to the tech rides…time waits for no one. 

E san N3000 (pay N3000); ewoo, see as bad network from rain open foul yansh. With my tech based rides, I could not have paid more than 15000 max.

After much argument, I hopped in at an agreed amount. Immediately turned to my phone, needed to look through the proposal before landing. The hustle is real man..

Without asking, I became aware of the environment again with the loud noise from the radio..

In a screaming voice, ”Haaa, won ri omo okunrin kan pelu eran eyan” (haaaa, they saw a man with body parts)…Olopa ti mu looo (Police has taken him away o)

I was weak, the memories of what the scream was all about hit me. Baba had tuned to the popular Yoruba News channel many older generation, semi literate to non-literates listen to. Those screams used to wake me up in Itire where I grew up.

Why will News or simple information come with so much screams and drama?

How can a News channel have the shouting power to induce hypertensive crisis because of their exaggeration of a News item? I asked myself.

Baba..e joor, e ba mi reduce volume yen (Baba, please reduce the volume}. Baba did, I was happy. I never knew this was the beginning of more interaction.

After a while, baba started..

In Yoruba

“My sister, this station that I was listening to is good. They bring so much happenings. Our issue in Nigeria is serious o; Ritual killing, No light, no good road, no food to eat..I kept on looking through my proposal but felt guilty within. Baba continued with the story I also knew..the last time I checked, I also live in Nigeria.

In Yoruba;

Baba, may God help us, but kindly let me concentrate sir. I need to quickly look through this document before getting to my destination.


Oh, It didn’t work! In Yoruba “Don’t be annoyed my child, this Nigeria issue ehhh, it is only God o. Look at me now, I am 62 years…

Arrrrrrrh! Whoever made earplugs? Oh, the guy or lady sure deserves a Nobel laureate.

Have you ever being in a similar experience? Biko let us share!

Noimot Abisola Balogun-Founder, is a healthcare relationship company that works with organizations, health care professionals, research institutes, Government and others in the health value chain to build and sustain health conversations with their consumers and beneficiaries. 

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5 Ways of Spotting New Opportunities

Waiting to be inspired means potentially waiting until the end of time. I’m not going to do that and you shouldn’t either.

How to spot an opportunity may be the key entrepreneurial trait, but you can’t do it on an island. You can’t simply wait for inspiration to strike you out of the blue and for you to suddenly realize “what the world truly needs is…”

Don’t wait for the opportunity go find the opportunity, whether it’s a
trading opportunity or a simple small business opportunity.

These are the 5 ways I spot brand new opportunities in business.

1. Get a sense of direction.

Trying to find an opportunity is just a general term that people use. I like to call it shifting responsibility. You should be taking control of the situation, and the only way to do this is by adopting a sense of direction. Which opportunities are you looking for and how are you going to find them? Write down what you want to achieve. This will motivate you and set you on a course that will inevitably open more doors.

2. Networking and Collaboration

You may prefer to be a lone wolf, but in business this isn’t going to get you very far. The fact is you have to network and collaborate because other people have a lot of great ideas. Use those great ideas to
propel you to greater heights.
Go out of your way to attend events and network. Set aside some time every day to network on social media platforms like LinkedIn. Build those relationships. Remember, the only way you can start to collaborate is through networking first.

3. Get a mentor.

A mentor is someone who’s already achieved more than you. Don’t get jealous seek them out. I’ve always believed that a mentor is the key to getting better and it’s the key to finding brand new opportunities. These are the people who can help you achieve more.

But you have to be willing to humble yourself so you can seek out the help of someone else. Be willing to admit that you don’t know it all, even if it’s tough. Mentors are important. They’re there to motivate. They’re there to inspire. They’re there to take you to new heights.

4. Be dependable.

Why would reliability have anything to do with finding opportunities? In many ways, reliability is the key that opens every door. It’s one of the big traits you should adopt. When you start flaking out people don’t want to work with you. When you break someone’s trust they’re not going to want to share or collaborate with you.

5. Opportunities can appear anywhere.

Opportunities can pop out at any time. But it’s a myth that opportunities just pop out of nowhere with no warning. The biggest businessmen in the world worked to make those opportunities happen. However, don’t start patting yourself on the back because you found an opportunity. Take advantage of it.
I believe that unveiling opportunities is only the first step. It’s not a time to rest on your successes.

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Winning Streaks, Losing Streaks and the Game of Life

How do these lessons about confidence help you in your everyday life? The secret to winning is not to lose twice in a row.

Confidence brings the resilience to bounce back from defeat to victory. It does not guarantee that you will win every single time, but confidence makes people more likely to analyze problems and face them head-on, communicate and cooperate with those whose support they need, and take initiative to make adjustments or try innovations. People with confidence can count on themselves to shape events, and they know they will stay in the game no matter what.

The only good thing about losing is that it sounds an alarm bells and can shake people out of complacency. A setback represents a time to make a choice, to make a difference, or to slip into self-defeating behavior. The dividing line between winning streaks and losing streaks is the choice of behavior in response to set-backs. The choice to rally instead of getting discouraged is that of an optimist who assumes negative events are temporary glitches rather than a permanent state of affairs.

Internal Supports 

Successful people also have character, the internalized three cornerstones of confidence accountability, collaboration and initiative and the ability to support others. When the going gets tough, they draw on those internal supports. Character is shaped by values and the desire to achieve excellence in all pursuits, regardless of the outcome.

They know that getting beaten by a better opponent is different than losing. As long as they are playing at the highest level, they will resume winning. Their standards are internal and they have the perseverance to stay in the game just a little longer. Winners define setbacks as detours, and they redouble their efforts to find a way around the obstacles.

One of the best things a winner can do when facing a loss is to think of others. Winners avoid the loser’s temptation to shut down and withdraw. People must build their own mini-network, knowing that others can be remarkably generous.

The Long March

Winners also avoid the loser’s habit of assuming too much. Winners don’t focus on the huge goal in thefuture; they work step-by-step to progress a little faster or a little smarter. They know they can’t jump stages. Winning is a long march, and even when the problems seem overwhelming, winners focus on what they can control — being prepared, working hard, and accomplishing small wins that will improve the odds of achieving the next big success.

For additional information on how confidence can affect personal life, go to:

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Koosha Azim: Creator Mindset Video

I always preach that it is important for people to be positive about themselves and be optimistic when in adversity. In the following LinkedIn video, Koosha Azim explains the idea of a Victim and Creator Mindset.

Having a Creator mindset helps in both business settings and with the rest of daily lives. Contrastingly, a Victim mindset could potentially hurt relationships and hurt mental health.

To learn more about Koosha Azim, check out his blog on his personal website.

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Aspiring Entrepreneurs should  finish  degree before starting up a venture -Isaac Sesi, Co-Founder and CEO at Sesi Technologies

Isaac Sesi is a Ghanian born entrepreneur, engineer and a software developer passionate about leveraging technology to solve some of Africa’s most pressing problems, especially in the field of agriculture while inspiring young Africans to be innovative and solve problems too.  Sesi holds a degree in electrical and electronic engineering from KNUST, a Tony Elumelu Fellow, Next Einstein Forum finalist and  World Summit Awards National Winner. He currently, lead a team of 11 at Sesi Technologies where they are developing affordable technologies to help farmers and agribusinesses along the Agric value chain to  increase productivity and reduce losses. For now, the startup is focusing on FarmSense and GrainMate and putting the relevant structures in place to help scale up production. In the past, he have co-founded two other startups namely; Invent Electronics and GravyCode.

Here, are his advice to African future entrepreneurs;

Upcoming entrepreneurs, should not fall for the college dropout misinterpretation. They should should not drop out of school yet.

The “You don’t need a degree to be successful because Bill Gates and Mark Zuckerberg dropped out of school and made it“ narrative is a common example of Survivorship Bias which is causing many young people to make unwise decisions.

Sesi embrazing nature

The people who push this narrative focus only on the achievement, leaving out the unique details surrounding those achievements.

The disproportionate focus on the stories of the Gates and Zuckerbergs who survived without considering the stories of those who didn’t paints an incomplete picture. For every Zuckerberg who drops out and makes it, there are probably 99 other dropouts who do not make it.

A university degree does not guarantee a successful life but, it does open up opportunities for you and give you a better shot at life.

If you live in Africa, where the systems are such that you need a degree to even get one foot at the door, then getting your degree is even more important.

So, if you do find yourself in the university and you have ambitions to start your own business, unless you have a very compelling reason to drop out, finish your degree and then you can go live out your startup dream.

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