Reviving the Wakanda Spirit in Africa

 


Credit: Black Panther/ Marvel Studios.

You are in Wakanda now. Thanos will have nothing but dust and blood.

Wakanda , officially known the as Kingdom of Wakanda , is a small isolationist landlocked country located in Africa , surrounded by mountain ranges and a thick forest.

Map of Wakanda from Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe #1 (December 1983).
Art by Don McGregor.

 

As essential as the allure of the character the Black Panther is, the Kingdom of Wakanda, the fictional African city from which he hails, is just as meaningful to many of those attending. Wakanda is a hidden African city, never conquered by Europeans, with the world’s only source of Vibranium and more technologically advanced that the rest of the world. It is alleged the source of the Vibranium is a meteor strike and that the meteor contained the Soul Gem, one of the Infinity Stones integral to the plot of Avengers: Infinity War.

Why Wakanda Forever Is Bigger Than ‘Black Panther’

 

Let’s visit the old Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa , concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt . Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC (according to conventional Egyptian chronology ) with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes (often identified with Narmer ).

The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age , the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age .

An old Egyptian Map.

Egypt reached the pinnacle of its power in the New Kingdom, ruling much of Nubia and a sizable portion of the Near East , after which it entered a period of slow decline. During the course of its history Egypt was invaded or conquered by a number of foreign powers, including the Hyksos, the Libyans, the Nubians, the Assyrians , the Achaemenid Persians , and the Macedonians under the command of Alexander the Great . The Greek Ptolemaic Kingdom, formed in the aftermath of Alexander’s death, ruled Egypt until 30 BC, when, under Cleopatra , it fell to the Roman Empire and became a Roman province.

The success of ancient Egyptian civilization came partly from its ability to adapt to the conditions of the Nile River valley for agriculture. The predictable flooding and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced surplus crops, which supported a more dense population, and social development and culture. With resources to spare, the administration sponsored mineral exploitation of the valley and surrounding desert regions, the early development of an independent writing system , the organization of collective construction and agricultural projects, trade with surrounding regions, and a military intended to assert Egyptian dominance. Motivating and organizing these activities was a bureaucracy of elite scribes , religious leaders, and administrators under the control of a pharaoh, who ensured the cooperation and unity of the Egyptian people in the context of an elaborate system of religious beliefs.

The many achievements of the ancient Egyptians include the
quarrying, surveying and construction techniques that supported the building of monumental pyramids, temples, and obelisks ; a system of mathematics , a practical and effective system of medicine, irrigation systems and agricultural production techniques, the first known planked boats, Egyptian faience and glass technology, new forms of literature , and the earliest known peace treaty , made with the Hittites. Ancient Egypt has left a lasting legacy. Its art and architecture were widely copied, and its antiquities carried off to far corners of the world. Its monumental ruins have inspired the imaginations of travelers and writers for centuries. A new-found respect for antiquities and excavations in the early modern period by Europeans and Egyptians led to the scientific investigation of Egyptian civilization and a greater appreciation of its cultural legacy.

The pyramids of Giza are among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt.

Old Kingdom

The great pyramids of Gizah

Major advances in architecture, art, and technology were made during the
Old Kingdom , fueled by the increased agricultural productivity and resulting population, made possible by a well-developed central administration. Some of ancient Egypt’s crowning achievements, the Giza pyramids and Great Sphinx , were constructed during the Old Kingdom. Under the direction of the vizier , state officials collected taxes, coordinated irrigation projects to improve crop yield, drafted peasants to work on construction projects, and established a justice system to maintain peace and order.

Middle Kingdom

The kings of the Middle Kingdom restored the country’s stability and prosperity, thereby stimulating a resurgence of art, literature, and monumental building projects. Mentuhotep II and his Eleventh Dynasty successors ruled from Thebes, but the vizier Amenemhat I , upon assuming the kingship at the beginning of the Twelfth Dynasty around 1985 BC, shifted the kingdom’s capital to the city of Itjtawy , located in
Faiyum . From Itjtawy, the kings of the Twelfth Dynasty undertook a farsighted land reclamation and irrigation scheme to increase agricultural output in the region. Moreover, the military reconquered territory in Nubia that was rich in quarries and gold mines, while laborers built a defensive structure in the Eastern Delta, called the “Walls-of-the-Ruler “, to defend against foreign attack.

In 332 BC, Alexander the Great conquered Egypt with little resistance from the Persians and was welcomed by the Egyptians as a deliverer. The administration established by Alexander’s successors, the Macedonian Ptolemaic Kingdom, was based on an Egyptian model and based in the new capital city of Alexandria. The city showcased the power and prestige of Hellenistic rule, and became a seat of learning and culture, centered at the famous Library of Alexandria . The Lighthouse of Alexandria lit the way for the many ships that kept trade flowing through the city as the Ptolemies made commerce and revenue generating enterprises, such as papyrus manufacturing, their top priority.

Young people are the drivers of Africa’s economy and future. With eleven million youth expected to enter Africa’s labor market every year for the next decade, now is the time for urgent action to build and nurture the region’s human capital.

The above information was culled for motivation and for the propagation of change in the future of Africa’s youths, policy makers, and civil society to collectively focus in solving the Africa challenges , aspirations, and actions taken to help build the human capital of areas of digital transformation to building human capital, Africa’s development future, prepare for Africa’s digital future and developing the potential of the continent’s next generation.

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Indonesia sustainable human capital development for inclusive innovation

Highly educated and well trained human resources are critical for an innovation driven economy and for Indonesia to sustain its future economic growth and to improve social welfare, the government has issued regulations, in which domestic taxpayers who conduct research and development (R&D) could obtain a gross income as high as 300% of the cost of their R&D activities, though the R&D activities must be conducted in Indonesia and produce new inventions, innovations, new technology and/or a transfer of technology to develop industries.

Also, domestic taxpayers who open a new business or expand their existing businesses in labours intensive sectors could enjoy a net income tax deduction of 60% of the capital they invested as fixed assets and local taxpayers who organize working programs, internships and/or educational activities to develop human resources based on a certain competency could obtain a gross income as high as 200% of the funds they had spent for the activities. Indonesia is learning from Singapore and South Korea, which have strong and committed governments that proactively set policy and provide incentives to push human capital development.

They strongly believe that high-quality human capital is key to maintaining their global competitiveness and to sustain growth.

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Renault is re-entering Nigeria’s automobile space

Multinational auto manufacturer, Groupe Renault has announced that it is re-entering Nigeria’s automobile space following a partnership agreement with Coscharis Motors Plc, one of the leading car dealers in the African country.

The auto dealer said that to kick start the strong cooperation, which would involve both local production and distribution, two of the Renault variants, namely Logan and Duster, would be assembled in the existing Coscharis Assembly facility in Lagos while Renault Kwid and Renault Oroch would be imported as Complete Built Unit in due course of the partnership.

The Senior Vice President and Chairman of the Africa, Middle-East, India region of Groupe Renault, Fabrice Cambolive said, “With a population of over 200 million, Nigeria is a strategic African country where Groupe Renault will extend its footprint.

It’s very unfortunate that many Nigerians don’t see the power in our population, we see it as a burden while foreign investors see it as Strategic Marketplace Initiative. MTN Group Limited saw Nigeria as a strategic African country. MTN came and smiled to the bank. Mohan Vaswani CEO of the Tolaram Group came to Nigeria with two containers of Indomie and he distributed it, at that time, the population was 90m. Today, every instant Noodle is Indomie.

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Governor Abiodun to reduce unemployment rate in Ogun, through employment process digitization and youth empowerment

The prosperity of a country lies in the improvements made for the comfort of majority of its citizens. Equality based rights protection is the basic requirement of the citizens. Number of structures and institutional factors combine together to define a map for the government and a social relation between government and its people is maintained. Due to this, government is obliged to provide best material (personnel).

To fulfill human resource plan of workplace, it requires the selection of those persons who can meet the needs of that workplace. Recruitment process starts by specifying the requirements (numbers, skills and time frame) of human resource. These requirements are the result of job analysis and activities of human resource development. After this initial process of job specification description, next phase is the recruitment process. Qualified candidates are asked to apply for the jobs. At this stage recruitment authority requires to devise the selection tools. Selection tools help in sorting out the best qualified persons.

As results of  the recruitment process application problems, job description and standard personnel requirements were not adequately used, especially at the lowest category of grade levels in Nigeria.

Kudos! to the government of Ogun State, Nigeria for taking a bold steps in the areas of unemployment by innovating and purifying corrupt  job application process in his state through digitization.

Governor Dapo Abiodun

Chief Press Secretary,  Kunle Somorin, stated that the portal would register, on a continuous basis, unemployed youths in the State with a view to providing them jobs suitable for their trade and academic qualifications.

He gave the site address as www.iseya.ng/public/.

“The Government of Ogun State are partnering with the public-private sector oriented to expand their job space for our teeming young men and women and those who have special talents,” the statement quoted the Governor as saying.

“It is a major pillar of our quality governance model. We are going to have an inclusive government that will utilize valuable potentials that abound in the State and that’s why we are involving the private sector.

“All graduates and those with vocational training across the State will give their information and we will endeavor  to match them with potential employers, not only within the civil service but also with the private sector, with whom we are partnering”, he stated.

To ensure that the citizens and residents of the states are not short-changed “we will send a local content bill for legislative action, such that investors will first look inward to availability of workers in Ogun State and make our youths their primary catchment area when they situate their Corp Abida here”.

The Governor said his Government plans certain enablers as corollary to his mission  to build our future together through “qualitative governance, education,  healthcare, infrastructural development, digitization and agriculture “.

“Besides linking our graduates with industrialists and Government agencies, we plan to engage 10,000 farmers to be supported for mechanized farming with attendant value chain benefits to make agribusiness bedrock of his administration’s plan to lift people out of poverty.”

Already, Governor Abiodun said 10,000 youths will be supported to plant cassava, maize and rice – crops in which the state is a leading producer.

“Each farmer will get a parcel of land and be supported with clearing,  seedlings,  extension and off takers services to ensure profitability of their ventures,” the statement concluded.

Job portal platforms can help in solving some problems of recruitment in Nigerian federal, state civil service and to determine the extent of the utilization of job description and job specification in the recruitment process if embrace by all government of the federation and not manipulated.

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TEF and UNDP to Empower 100,000 Additional Entrepreneurs   

As the continent looks towards its entrepreneurs. With a majority of African nations diversifying from traditional sources of income, entrepreneurship is increasingly seen as a key to economic growth.

Looking into the infrat tenuous economic statistical analysis, it shows vividly that entrepreneurial development is one of the strategic growth tools in which the continent can evolve her economic potentiality.

  • Nigeria is expected to be the 3rd most populous country by 2050 with a population of over 300 million while several other African countries are projected to have more than doubled their population in the same time period.
  • Africa, in general, is expected to account for more than half of the world’s population growth between 2015 and 2050.
  • 41% of Africans are currently under the age of 15 and 60% of the continent is below the age of 25.
  • Now, 9 out of 10 working African youth are poor or near poor and over the next 10 years, only one in four of Africa’s youth are expected to find a wage job at best.
  • The youth population in Africa is expected to double, to over 830 million, by 2050.
  • In Nigeria alone, over 40 million additional jobs will be needed between now and 2030.

Entrepreneurship development is basically the process of improving the skill set as well as the knowledge of the entrepreneurs. The process of entrepreneurship development is nothing but helping the entrepreneurs develop their skills through training and application of that training.

Now, Tony Elumelu Foundation as an African non-profit organization.

TEF Chairman, Tony O. Elumelu.

Founded in  by Tony O. Elumelu and headquartered in Lagos. Nigeria Tony O. Elumelu belief that, with the right support, entrepreneurs can be empowered to contribute meaningfully to Africa’s prosperity and social development.

Tony Elumelu Foundation Fellow

It is has also been a great ĵmoment,  since the establishment of Tony Elumelu Foundation, in the areas of entrepreneurship, small and medium scale businesses development to the young continent of Africa.

UNDP Representative and TEF Chairman sighning the partnership agreement.

We are pleased to announce the partnership between the Tony Elumelu Foundation and UNDP to empower 100,000 additional entrepreneurs in 7 Sahel African countries over a 10-year period. This is in addition to the 10,000 African entrepreneurs that the Foundation is already committed to; stated in TEF News letter.

Starting this July, applications open for African entrepreneurs residing in the following countries: Nigeria (Northern), Niger, Chad, Cameroun, Mauritania, Mali and Burkina Faso.

With this partnership, the Tony Elumelu Foundation will give hope to the thousands of African entrepreneurs who have not been selected for its TEF Entrepreneurship Programme.

Across Africa, entrepreneurs are starting every size, and every type, of business. Without adequate entrepreneurship education, mentorship and business support, Africa faces a very uncertain future.

So, we are imploring international organizations, wealthy African descants to partner with the likes of TEF or follow their empowerment path in the areas of entrepreneurship development and employment growth strategies in Africa, that have helping thousand of Africans since inception of the programme.

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The effects of Rural-Urban Migration in Lagos, Nigeria

Every choice in this community is defined by the urgent need for survival. For the people of Badia, life is an unending struggle against the increasing challenges of hunger and poverty. They live in a country which ranks 152 out of 187 on the United Nations Human Development Index and which has one of the world’s highest birth rate.

Inside-Out

Overpopulation has long been an issue for Nigeria. Thousands of people migrate from the countrysides and across Africa into Lagos daily, in search of work.

A cross section of busy Oshodi market in Lagos Nigeria.

The city’s rising population is putting massive pressure on housing, and the lack of it is the direct result of why places like Badia exists. Most of the people in Badia have left. They have moved on to other slums, like Ajegunle and Makoko. But some hard-pressed families are still in Badia today, either sleeping in the remains of their homes or struggling even to find space to lay their beds.

Getty image/Lagos, Nigeria.

In recent years, however, with shanties built on illegal grounds, demolition, and forced evictions have become fiercer and more regular at Badia.

According to Amnesty International, the State government demolished the homes of almost 10,000 of the slum’s population in February 2013 and September 2015 consecutively with a devastating loss of life and livelihood.“We have limited access to water, and sewage facility is non-existent. Most of all, some people who were petty traders have lost their businesses.

Causes Of Rural-Urban Migration

The factors that cause rural-urban migration are divided into two major groups known as PUSH or PULL factors. The push factors are those conditions in the rural areas that compel people to leave, while the pull factors are those things in the urban areas that attract people in the rural areas. These push and pull factors include the following:

1. Lack of Social Amenities

Absence of social amenities like good roads, electricity, pipe-borne water, hospitals etc. contribute in compelling people to leave the rural areas.

2. Availability of Recreational Facilities in the Urban Areas

Many people especially the youths leave rural areas to cities where they can find recreational facilities like stadia, swimming pools, cinemas, amusement parks etc.

3. Higher Education

The need for higher education make many people to migrate to urban areas where majority of our higher institutions like universities, polytechnics and colleges of education are located.

4. Employment Opportunities

Many people move to urban areas for meaningful employment opportunities that they might not have access to in rural areas.

5. Marriage

Newly married ladies whose husbands are in urban areas leave their base in order to go and live with their husbands.

6. Business Activities

Those in the rural areas who have business intentions move to urban areas where the business action is.

7. Natural Disaster

Natural disasters like outbreak of diseases, erosion, earthquake etc, may push people away from rural areas to cities.

8. Ostracism

If one is kept at arms length by members of his community for any reason, one of the options left to that person is to migrate to urban areas that is made up of people from different areas.

9. Political Reasons

A person may move from rural area to urban area considered as a point of political activities, in order to participate fully in politics.

Consequences of Rural-Urban Migration

1. Uneven Distribution of Population

The urban areas become densely populated at the expense of rural areas.

2. Congestion

Many urban areas are today congested as a result of mass movement of rural residents into them. More people are now chasing the few houses in urban areas which leads to increase in rents.

4. Escalation of Unemployment

Many unemployed people reject job offers in rural areas and move to cities thereby worsening the unemployment situation.

5. Increase in Crime Rate

Many unemployed people who moved away from the rural areas to cities with the hope of getting employment take to crime when their hopes are dashed in order to keep body and soul together.

6. Agriculture is Greatly Affected

The able-bodied people move to urban areas leaving children and the aged behind in the rural areas to practise agriculture.

7. Increase in Price of Goods

The presence of many people, especially the unproductive, unemployed in the cities, low agricultural productivity, etc, are some of the contributory factors to increase in price of goods.

8. Disparity in Development

The dense population in the urban areas attracts more government attention at the expense of sparse population in the rural areas.

9. More Business Activities in Urban Centres

Densely populated areas like our cities are the focus of business activities because demand is always higher than in sparsely populated areas of the countryside.

10. Increase in Political Malpractices

Political violence is higher in urban areas because of the presence of many unemployed youths from rural areas who constitute ready tools used by the politicians in achieving their atrocious and selfish political aims.

How to Solve the Problem of Rural-Urban Migration in Lagos, Nigeria

1. Provision of Social Amenities to Rural Areas

The availability of social amenities in rural areas will discourage many people from migrating to urban areas.

2. Establishment of Industries in Rural Areas

This will provide jobs to rural residents and discourage them from leaving to cities in search of jobs.

3. Provision of Recreational facilities

If recreational facilities like stadia, swimming pools, cinemas, amusement parks etc, are made available in rural areas, they will reduce the propensity of our youths to move to urban areas.

4. Establishment of Higher Institutions In the Rural Areas

This will discourage rural-urban migration in the quest for higher education which can now be obtained in the rural areas.

5. Improved Agricultural System

If this is done, agriculture will be more attractive and many school leavers will take it as their occupation and stay in the rural areas instead of migrating to urban areas in search of white-collar jobs that are scarce.

Read more:

1. Emmanuel Oboro: Cbjspotlight (2015):Online: https://cbjspotlight.co.uk/2016/06/23/life-in-a-lagos-slum-where-hope-seems-a-world-aw

2. Maduawuchi(2015):NigeriaRural-Urban Migration: Causes, Consequences and Solutions, NigerianInfopedia:Online: https://www.nigerianinfopedia.com/rural-urban-migration-causes-consequences-solutions/

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Nigeria: Buhari Bans Palm Oil Import and other 42 items 

President Buhari of Nigeria bans Palm oil Import, as the Central Bank of Nigeria distributes N30bn to producers. He also, directed the apex bank to include palm oil among the banned 42 items and to prosecute firms, owners and management that violated the order by importing the product into the country.

Trading Economics reported that,

imports to Nigeria rose 2.6% year-on-year to NGN 1002 billion in March 2019, boosted by purchases of energy goods (796.3%); manufactured goods (101.3%); solid mineral (70.8%); raw material (46.9%) and agricultural goods (61.3%). Imports in Nigeria averaged 227104.84 NGN Millions from 1981 until 2019, reaching an all time high of 2209385.78 NGN Millions in August of 2018 and a record low of 167.88 NGN Millions in May of 1984.

It is a constitutional taboo from the executive proclaimation of the Federal Republic of Nigeria for any company or individual to import palm oil into Nigeria, so as to boost local production and create more jobs. The presidential directive was disclosed yesterday by the governor of the CBN, Mr Godwin Emefiele.

Emefiele (middle) and others at a press conference yesterday.

Emefiele in a statements made yesterday at a press conference, reveals that, the main motive behind the ban is to grow the economy and provide jobs for more Nigerians,

we must go back to palm oil production explained that he has a new presidential directive to focus on the massive production of 10 commodities: rice, maize, cassava, tomatoes, cotton and so on.

The CBN boss  said that,

the presidential directive mandated the CBN and other relevant government agencies to expand, support people who want to expand the products in Nigeria.

The entire textile value chain, oil palm, pottery, fish, livestock and cocoa in Nigeria, adding that, “this is the programme we will be embarking upon in the next couple of years.

 

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Creating jobs in higher productivity sectors in Africa

Africa’s  working-age  population  is  projected  to increase from 705 million in 2018 to almost 1.0 billion by 2030. As millions of young people join the labor market, the pressure to provide decent jobs will  intensify.  At  the  current  rate  of  labor  force growth,  Africa  needs  to  create  about  12 million new  jobs  every  year  to  prevent  unemployment from  rising.  Strong  and  sustained  economic growth is necessary for generating employment, but  that  alone  is  not  enough.

The  source  and nature of growth also matter. Africa has achieved one of the fastest and most sustained growth spurts in the past two decades, yet  growth  has  not  been  pro-employment.  A 1 percent increase in GDP growth over 2000–14 was  associated  with  only  0.41 percent  growth in  employment,  meaning  that  employment  was expanding at a rate of less than 1.8 percent a year, or far below the nearly 3 percent annual growth in the labor force. If this trend continues, 100 million people  will  join  the  ranks  of  the  unemployed  in the young continent.

Africa  by  2030.  Without  meaningful  structural change, most of the jobs generated are likely to be in the informal sector, where productivity and wages are low and work is insecure, making the eradication of extreme poverty by 2030 a difficult task (African Development Bank Report 2019).

One of the most salient features of labor markets in Africa is the high prevalence of informal employment, the default option for a large majority of the growing labor force. On average, developing  countries  have  higher  shares  of  informal employment  than  developed  countries.  While data  on  informal  employment  are  sketchy,  it  is clear that Africa has the highest rate of estimated informality in the world, at 72 percent of nonagriculture employment  and as high as 90 percent in some countries.

Furthermore, there is no evidence that informality is declining in Africa. While evidence from other developing countries shows a fairly competitive labor market structure, Africa has a more segmented labor market. Segmented labor markets tend to improve with economic policies that facilitate labor mobility, a competitive environment for private sector operations, and better skill development programs.

 

Continue reading “Creating jobs in higher productivity sectors in Africa”

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