Air Pollution: A Tsunami in Nigeria

Air pollution is one of the biggest threats for the environment and affects everyone: humans, animals, crops, cities, forests, aquatic ecosystems. Here today we are going to look  in deep the causes, present air pollution rate in Nigeria and the most importantly, what are the possible solutions to tackle this treat to nature caused by the inhabitants of the earth?

Let’s begins with this; Water, I mean water. Yes, it is no longer enough simply to kill the bacteria contained in a water in order to make it drinkable, since the pollution produced by man has altered the very chemical composition of the natural water supply.

History

In 1392 King Charles VI of France published an edict that outlawed the emission of foul smelling gases in Paris.

Still on the agenda

A pollution effect.

Air pollution is caused by the presence in the atmosphere of toxic substances, mainly produced by human activities, even though sometimes it can result from natural phenomena such as volcanic eruptions, dust storms and wildfires, also depleting the air quality.

Nigeria produces more than 3 million tons of waste annually, and uncontrolled waste burning is one of the practices that contribute to deteriorating air quality. Almost every Nigerian is exposed to air pollution levels exceeding WHO guidelines and inflicting significant air pollution damage costs.

Air pollution was responsible for about a million premature deaths in Africa in 2016.
Nigeria has a mortality for air pollution of 307.4 for every 100,000 people, the second worst in all of Africa. More people die from air pollution in Nigeria than in South Africa, Kenya, and Angola, combined.

Air pollution is a critical risk factor for noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) worldwide, causing about 24% of all adult deaths from heart disease, 29% from lung cancer, 25% from stroke, and 43% from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Major sources of air pollution in Nigeria include tailpipe exhaust from cars and trucks, smoke from the open burning of residential trash, diesel generators, road dust, industry, and soot from the use of biomass-fuelled cookstoves indoors.

The air pollution levels in cities such as Lagos, Abuja, Port Harcourt, Kano, and in particular Onitsha, a port city on the bank of the Niger River in southern Nigeria, is still at health-damaging level.

Onitsha recorded the world’s worst levels of PM10 (particles of less than 10 micrometers) air pollutants in 2016 with an annual mean concentration of 594 micrograms per cubic meter (μg/m3 ). This was 30 times above the World Health Organization (WHO) annual guideline of 20 μg/m3 for PM10.

Causes of air pollution in Nigeria today

  • Combustion of fossil fuels, like coal and oil for electricity and road transport, producing air pollutants like nitrogen and sulfur dioxide.
  • Emissions from industries and factories, releasing large amount of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, chemicals and organic compounds into the air.
  • Agricultural activities, due to the use of pesticides, insecticides, and fertilizers that emit harmful chemicals
  • Waste production, mostly because of methane generation in landfills.

Nigerian government can control Air pollution through the following ways:

1. Renewable fuel and clean energy production

The most basic solution for air pollution is to move away from fossil fuels, replacing them with alternative energies like solar, wind and geothermal.

2. Energy conservation and efficiency

Producing clean energy is crucial. But equally important is to reduce our consumption of energy by adopting responsible habits and using more efficient devices.

3. Eco-friendly transportation

Shifting to electric vehicles and hydrogen vehicles, and promoting shared mobility (i.e carpooling, and public transports) could reduce air pollution.

4. Green building

From planning to demolition, green building aims to create environmentally responsible and resource-efficient structures to reduce their carbon footprint.

In addition, monitoring air pollution levels has become very important to detect pollution peaks, better control air pollution and eventually improve air quality.

To this end, learn how to  measure air quality ?

With measuring devices using laser-based technologies, chemiluminescence, flame ionization, etc. These devices are, for instance, located close to the traffic, far from the traffic and close to industrial zones. All the collected data are compiled into a value scale, called the
Air Quality Index (AQI).

Please follow and like us:

The Need for Increased Local Investment in Gas Sector, By Fashola

A former Minister of Power, Works and Housing, Babatunde Fashola, has called for increased local investments in the gas sector to realise its potential benefits.

Fashola (middle) at the inauguration of an indigenous gas company in Ogun State, Nigeria.

Fashola made the call at the inauguration of an indigenous gas company, GASCO Marine Limited, located at Onijanganjangan community in Abeokuta North Local Government area of Ogun State.

“We can continue to talk about gas flaring and carbon emissions and their negative impacts on the environment, but the situation will not change unless we do something about it,” Fashola said. The former minister, who commended the initiative, said such investment in gas would help government in protecting the environment for future generations. Stressing the advantages in the use of gas, Fashola said “there is about 60 per cent cost saving in the deployment of gas as an alternative to inefficient and polluting diesel.”

He also emphasised the benefit of employment generation through the value chain of gas production, processing, storage and distribution.

 

Please follow and like us:

The Direct Sale of Crude Oil and Direct Purchase of Petroleum product (DSDP) in Nigeria

 

 

In 2016, the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) eliminated the Offshore Processing Agreement (OPA) through the introduction of the Direct Sales and Direct Purchase (DSDP) scheme and the DSDP scheme was to enable sustained petroleum products supply in the country, in which petroleum products to be delivered shall be equivalent in value to the Crude Oil received from NNPC subject to the general terms and conditions.

According to the NNPC, since the inception of the DSDP scheme in 2016 until March 2019, about 29.5 million metric tons (39.6 billion litres) of petroleum products have been supplied under the scheme representing over 90 per cent of the national requirement, that through a transparent competitive bidding and evaluation process, the scheme has enlisted a robust supplier mix comprising of the big international players and strong Nigerian downstream companies for supply flexibility and local capacity development, likewise, the scheme has over the years ensured a significant reduction in product demurrage cost in the range of 84% and cost savings of about 2.2 billion dollars. As for the 2019 – 2020, Direct Sale of Crude Oil and Direct Purchase of Petroleum product (DSDP) 132 companies have indicated interest to bid for about 14 billion litres of products under the scheme.

Please follow and like us:

20 OWNERS OF RICHEST OIL BLOCKS IN NIGERIA

 

The bastardizing of Nigeria by the mindless, who hate the nation. Monumental injustice to a people: 20 Owners Of Richest Oil Blocks In Nigeria Without the people of Niger Delta on whose soil the oil was found. All between Hausa and Yoruba.

(1) This oil block business is so lucrative that Danjuma’s Sapetro divested of its investment in Akpo condensate for $1billion dollars. This business is second to none in Nigeria. That is why any attempt to investigate the activities in this sector will always be futile. The money is so much that they give bribes in millions of dollars. A birthday gift or child naming gift from an oil block owner to a government official could be as much as $2million dollars, and if the official’s father died, the condolence gift could reach $3 million dollars. When they want to bribe legislators, it is in millions of dollars and any ongoing investigation ends within weeks. They are so confident that with excess money they can buy up Nigeria and they are succeeding

(2) OML 110 with high yield OBE oil fields was given to Cavendish Petroleum owned by Alhaji Mai Deribe, the Borno Patriarch in 1996 by Sanni Abacha. OBE oil field has estimated over 500 million barrels of oil. In layman’s language and using average benchmark of $100 dollars per barrel, translates to $50 billion dollars worth of oil reserve. When you remove the taxes, royalties and sundry duties worth about 60% of the reserve payable over time, you get about $20billion dollars worth of oil in the hands of a family.

(3) OPL 246 was awarded to SAPETRO, a company owned by General Theophilus Danjuma, by Sanni Abacha in 1998. Akpo condensate exports about 300,000 barrels of crude daily.

(4) NOML 112 and OML 117 were awarded to AMNI International Petroleum Development Company owned by Colonel Sanni Bello in 1999. Sanni Bello is an inlaw to Abdulsalami Abubakar, former Head of State of Nigeria.

(5) OML 115, OLDWOK Field and EBOK field was awarded to Alhaji Mohammed Indimi from Niger State. Indimi is an inlaw to former Military President Ibrahim Babangida.

(6) OML 215 is operated by Nor East Petroleum Limited owned by Alhaji Saleh Mohammed Gambo.

(7) OML 108 is operated by Express Petroleum Company Limited is owned by Alhaji Aminu Dantata.

(8) OML II3 allocated to Yinka Folawiyo Pet Ltd is owned by Alhaji W.I. folawiyo

(9)ASUOKPU/UMUTU marginal oil fields is operated by Seplat Petroleum. Seplat is owned by Prince Nasiru Ado Bayero, cousin to the Central Bank Governor Lamido Sanusi. This oil field has the capacity of 300,000 barrels of oil daily. This translates to $30million dollars daily at average benchmark of $100 dollars per barrel. Deducting all sundry taxes, royalties etc , this field can yield $12billion dollars daily for the owners .

(10)Intel owned by Atiku, Yarádua and Ado Bayero has substantial stakes in Nigeria’s oil exploration industry both in Nigeria and Principe and Sao Tome.

(11) AMNI owns two oil blocks OML 112 and OML 117 which it runs. Afren plc and Vitol has substantial stakes in oil blocks. Afren plc is operating EBOK oil fields in OML 67. Vitol lifts 300,000 barrels of Nigerian oil daily. Rilwanu Lukman, former OPEC Chairman has stakes in all these named three companies.

(12) OPL 245 was awarded to Malabu Oil& Gas Company by Sanni Abacha. Dan Etete, Abacha’s oil minister owns Malabu Oil. In 2000, Vice President Atiku Abubakar convinced Obasanjo to revoke OPL 245 given to Malabu Oil. Etete had earlier rejected Atiku’s demand for substantial stakes in the high yield OPL 245 and it attracted the venom of Ota Majesty who revoked the licence. However, in 2006, Obasanjo had mercy on Dan Etete and gave him back his oil block worth over $20 billion dollars.

(13) OPL 289 and OPL 233 was awarded during Obasanjo era to Peter Odili fronts, Cleanwater Consortium, consisting of Clenwater Refinery and RivGas Petroleum and Gas Company. Odili’s brother in law, Okey Ezenwa manages the consortium as Vice Chairman.

(14) OPL 286 is managed by Focus Energy in partnership with BG Group, a British oil concern. Andy Uba has stakes in Focus Energy and his modus operandi is such that you can never see his name in any listings yet he controls OPL and OML through proxies

(15)OPL 291 was awarded to Starcrest Energy Nigeria Limited, owned by Emeka Offor by Obasanjo . Immediately after the award, Starcrest sold the oil block to Addax Petroleum Development Company Limited (ADDAX) Addax paid Sir Emeka Offor a farming fee of $35million dollars and still paid the signature bonus to the government. Emeka Offor still retains stake in ADDAX operations in Nigeria.

(16) Mike Adenuga’s Conoil is the oldest indigenous oil exploration industry in Nigeria. Conoil has six oil blocks and exports above 200,000 barrels of crude daily.

(17)The oil block national cake sharing fiesta could take twists according to the mood of the Commander-in –Chief at the particular time. In 2006, Obasanjo revoked OPL 246 which Abacha gave to Danjuma because he refused to support the tenure elongation bid of the Ota Majesty. In 2000, Obasanjo had earlier revoked OPL 241 given to Dan Etete under the advice Atiku. However, when the Obasanjo-Atiku faceoff started, the Ota Majesty made a u-turn and handed back the oil block to Etete.

(18)During the time of Late President Yarádua , a panel headed by Olusegun Ogunjana was set up to investigate the level of transparency in the award of oil blocks. The panel recommended that 25 oil blocks awarded by the Obasanjo be revoked because the manner they were obtained failed to meet the best practices in the industry. Sadiq Mahmood, permanent secretary in the Ministry of Petroleum endorsed the report to then president with all its recommendations. As a result of the report Yarádua revoked eleven oil blocks.

(19) In April 2011 Mike Adenuga attempted to buy Shell’s OML 30 for $1.2 billion dollars. The Minister for Petroleum and Nigeria’s most powerful woman refused the sale of the OML30 to Adenuga citing national interest. This block was later sold to Heritage Oil for $800 million dollars eleven months later.

(20) In the name of competitive bidding, which Obasanjo introduced in 2005, Officials bring companies overnight and through processes best described as secretive and voodooist they award blocks to party faithful, fronts and phoney companies. They collect gratifications running into hundreds of millions of dollars which is paid into offshore account and the nation loses billions of dollars of revenue to private pockets.

During the third term agenda, Obasanjo was deceived that the allocation of oil block to party faithfuls is to fund the third term agenda. With the failure of the third term, the beneficiaries went home with their fortunes and thanked God or Allah for buttering their bread. Senator Andy Uba co ordinate the award of the last rounds of oil block by Obasanjo in 2005 and 2007. The then minister of petroleum, Edwin Daukoru was a mere errand boy who took instructions from the presidential aide

The process of sharing Nigeria’s oil block national cake is as fraudulent now as when Ibrahim Babangida started the process of discretionary allocation of oil blocks to indigenous firms. Discretionary allocation of oil blocks entails that a president can reward a mistress who performs wonderfully with an oil block with capacity for cumulative yield of over $20 billion dollars without recourse to any process outside of manhood attachments. Babangida, Abacha, Abdulsalami and Obasanjo awarded discretionary oil blocks to friends, associates, family members, party chieftains, security chiefs and all categories of bootlickers, spokespersons and cult members without any laid down procedures.

The recipients of such oil blocks will get funds from ever willing offshore financiers and partners to graciously settle the benefactors, the awarders, facilitators and the Commander-in-Chief through fronts. These settlements mostly paid into foreign accounts runs into hundreds of millions of dollars according to the potential yield of the block. Sometimes, the awarder (sharer of national cake and direct intermediaries) demand additional stakes in the bidding company. The awarder sends fronts as part of the directorship and management of the bidding firms without leaving a link to them. That is how the oil block national cake is distributed to a few Nigerians.

Signature bonuses which are paid when an investor successfully bids, wins and signs agreement with the petroleum ministry, running into tens of millions and sometimes hundreds of millions of naira ,is often waived off. There is actually no waiver; rather a diversion of what would have been paid to government t coffers is paid into private purse as appreciation gifts. That is why those in the Petroleum Ministry dread retirement as though it signifies going to hell fire. No matter how little your influence, something substantial must enter your hands especially in hard currency. The nation loses billions of dollars in diverted revenue whenever any round of auction occurs.

The regime of President Goodluck is not showing any signs of changing the status quo. Controversies have trailed the activities of the Minister of Petroleum and many players in the Industry accuse her of demanding stakes from every oil deal. It is hoped that President Goodluck Jonathan will remember his transformation promise to Nigerians and endeavour to face the hawks in the oil industry.

The angst in the air is so much that if this monster of illegal allocation of oil block is not addressed, the much touted revolution could begin all of a sudden and all who condoned this illegality at the expense of hungry Nigerians may have nowhere to hide.

Thompson M. Adiuku, Ph.D

Year 2012/

Please follow and like us:

Saudi Aramco ; the world’s most profitable company

 

It is not a joke, that Saudi Aramco has become the world’s most profitable company, beating Apple by far. On April 1 when Saudi Aramco opened its book, it was revealed that it generated $111.1 billion in net income in 2018, making it probably the world’s most profitable company, handily beat Apple, whose net income in 2018 was $59.5 billion.

However, Saudi Aramco tightly bound to one country and the price of oil, but Saudi Aramco wants to expand its refining operations and petrochemical output across the globe, for that, Saudi Aramco is buying out Shell’s 50% share of a joint venture oil refinery in Saudi Arabia for $631 million.

Saudi Aramco Shell Refinery Co. (SASREF), based in Jubail Industrial City in Saudi Arabia and it’s 50-50 joint venture, which has a crude oil refining capacity of 305,000 barrels per day that produces liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), naphtha, kerosene, diesel, fuel oil and sulfur.

The Saudi government has conservatively managed Saudi Aramco with very low debt levels, likewise, the Buhari government is trying to conservatively manage NNPC but we have a long way to go with the reforms. The signing of the Petroleum Industry Bill without proper reforms we might end up like the crisis in the power sector, even it might be worse.

 

Please follow and like us:

Nigeria government to raise US $700m for Assa North-Ohaji South joint gas project

 

Assa North-Ohaji South project is one of the seven gas production infrastructures in the West African Nation which is the continent’s largest crude producer. The government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria has announced plans to raise US $700m for a joint gas project between Seplat Petroleum Development and Nigeria’s State oil company in bid to reduce the reliance on oil in the country.

The proposed Assa North-Ohaji South joint gas project

ANOH Gas Processing which is owned and managed by Seplat and the Nigerian Gas Co, a unit of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation will develop, build, operate and maintain the gas plant in Southeastern Imo State.

 According to Seplat CEO Austin Avuru, Seplat and Nigerian Gas will provide 60% of the funds as equity while on the other side ANOH will source the remaining balance as debt.

 

“As at now both parties have contributed US $100m in equity and there will also be another equity injection coming and the back end of it will be debt,” said Avuru.

 

The plant will process wet gas which has a capacity of US $300 standard cubic feet per day and will begin production works at the last quarter of 2020 with its major supply targeted to begin in 2021.

On the other side Seplat will double its capital spending to US $200m as it seeks to take advantage on relative stability in the Niger Delta region.The firm says it will spend 70% of its capital budget on drilling while the rest for facilities and gas development.

ANOH has the capacity to double production depending on the domestic demand available in the country, for this reason ANOH will target Nigeria growing population. 

The government of Nigeria is also encouraging investments in gas in order to increase supply to power companies and move the economy from over dependence in oil which currently accounts for the bulk revenue in the country.

 

 

 

Please follow and like us: