Air Pollution: A Tsunami in Nigeria

Air pollution is one of the biggest threats for the environment and affects everyone: humans, animals, crops, cities, forests, aquatic ecosystems. Here today we are going to look  in deep the causes, present air pollution rate in Nigeria and the most importantly, what are the possible solutions to tackle this treat to nature caused by the inhabitants of the earth?

Let’s begins with this; Water, I mean water. Yes, it is no longer enough simply to kill the bacteria contained in a water in order to make it drinkable, since the pollution produced by man has altered the very chemical composition of the natural water supply.

History

In 1392 King Charles VI of France published an edict that outlawed the emission of foul smelling gases in Paris.

Still on the agenda

A pollution effect.

Air pollution is caused by the presence in the atmosphere of toxic substances, mainly produced by human activities, even though sometimes it can result from natural phenomena such as volcanic eruptions, dust storms and wildfires, also depleting the air quality.

Nigeria produces more than 3 million tons of waste annually, and uncontrolled waste burning is one of the practices that contribute to deteriorating air quality. Almost every Nigerian is exposed to air pollution levels exceeding WHO guidelines and inflicting significant air pollution damage costs.

Air pollution was responsible for about a million premature deaths in Africa in 2016.
Nigeria has a mortality for air pollution of 307.4 for every 100,000 people, the second worst in all of Africa. More people die from air pollution in Nigeria than in South Africa, Kenya, and Angola, combined.

Air pollution is a critical risk factor for noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) worldwide, causing about 24% of all adult deaths from heart disease, 29% from lung cancer, 25% from stroke, and 43% from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Major sources of air pollution in Nigeria include tailpipe exhaust from cars and trucks, smoke from the open burning of residential trash, diesel generators, road dust, industry, and soot from the use of biomass-fuelled cookstoves indoors.

The air pollution levels in cities such as Lagos, Abuja, Port Harcourt, Kano, and in particular Onitsha, a port city on the bank of the Niger River in southern Nigeria, is still at health-damaging level.

Onitsha recorded the world’s worst levels of PM10 (particles of less than 10 micrometers) air pollutants in 2016 with an annual mean concentration of 594 micrograms per cubic meter (μg/m3 ). This was 30 times above the World Health Organization (WHO) annual guideline of 20 μg/m3 for PM10.

Causes of air pollution in Nigeria today

  • Combustion of fossil fuels, like coal and oil for electricity and road transport, producing air pollutants like nitrogen and sulfur dioxide.
  • Emissions from industries and factories, releasing large amount of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, chemicals and organic compounds into the air.
  • Agricultural activities, due to the use of pesticides, insecticides, and fertilizers that emit harmful chemicals
  • Waste production, mostly because of methane generation in landfills.

Nigerian government can control Air pollution through the following ways:

1. Renewable fuel and clean energy production

The most basic solution for air pollution is to move away from fossil fuels, replacing them with alternative energies like solar, wind and geothermal.

2. Energy conservation and efficiency

Producing clean energy is crucial. But equally important is to reduce our consumption of energy by adopting responsible habits and using more efficient devices.

3. Eco-friendly transportation

Shifting to electric vehicles and hydrogen vehicles, and promoting shared mobility (i.e carpooling, and public transports) could reduce air pollution.

4. Green building

From planning to demolition, green building aims to create environmentally responsible and resource-efficient structures to reduce their carbon footprint.

In addition, monitoring air pollution levels has become very important to detect pollution peaks, better control air pollution and eventually improve air quality.

To this end, learn how to  measure air quality ?

With measuring devices using laser-based technologies, chemiluminescence, flame ionization, etc. These devices are, for instance, located close to the traffic, far from the traffic and close to industrial zones. All the collected data are compiled into a value scale, called the
Air Quality Index (AQI).

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Unemployment and poverty have yet to see a positive impact in Nigeria

The increasing unemployment and declining underemployment rates imply that the fragile economic recovery is beginning to create employment. But the current rate measures that, the number of people actively looking for a job as a percentage of the labour force.

However, hours worked within these jobs are not yet enough for full time employment (40+ hours within the week). While this is on-going, the inflow of entrants into the labour market continues to grow steadily, minimizing the effect of any jobs created within the economy on the overall unemployment rate.

Last year, Nigeria’s official unemployment figures jumped by 30 percent this year to 16 million with another two million expected by the end of the year. But less than forty percent of Nigeria’s nearly 200 million people are fully employed. Also, in the same year, Nigeria edged-out of its worst recession in nearly three decades in September last year and made bouts of economic growth.

Similarly, a report as at January 2019 by the Brookings Institution indicated that, the Nigeria state had overtaken India as the nation with the highest number of extremely poor people. The report showed that about 87 million Nigerians are in extreme poverty, with six Nigerians falling into extreme poverty every minute.

Furthermore, data from National Bureau of Statistics, NBS, showed that the number of unemployed Nigerians rose  by 3.3 million or 19 per cent to 20.9 million in third quarter of 2018 (Q3’18)  from 17.6 million in third quarter  of 2017 (Q3’17).

Presenty, Unemployment Rate in Nigeria increased to 23.10 percent in the third quarter of 2018 from 22.70 percent in the second quarter of 2018. Unemployment Rate in Nigeria averaged 12.31 percent from 2006 until 2018, reaching an all time high of 23.10 percent in the third quarter of 2018 and a record low of 5.10 percent in the fourth quarter of 2010; NBS and Trading Economics noted(Figure 1.).

Fig. 1. UNEMPLOYMENT INDEX IN NIGERIA.
[NBS/ TRADINGECONOMICS.COM]

This  infra data, provides the latest reported value for – Nigeria Unemployment Rate – plus previous releases, historical high and low, short-term forecast and long-term prediction, economic calendar, survey consensus and news. Nigeria Unemployment Rate – actual data, historical chart and calendar of releases – was last updated on July of 2019.

Fig. 2.http://TRADINGECONOMICS.COM
TRADINGECONOMICS.COM

Why Unemployment rate is still increasing

Inadequate funding remains the major reason why most industries in the country could not survive or expand, to create more jobs in the system, Nigeria has what it takes to stand and compete favourably with China and Dubai, but for lack of support to its entrepreneurs.

From all  six geopolitical zones of the Nigeria, citizens have been lamenting  that  the Federal Government   lack of commitment  to empower entrepreneurs in the country to fast track economic growth.

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TEF and UNDP to Empower 100,000 Additional Entrepreneurs   

As the continent looks towards its entrepreneurs. With a majority of African nations diversifying from traditional sources of income, entrepreneurship is increasingly seen as a key to economic growth.

Looking into the infrat tenuous economic statistical analysis, it shows vividly that entrepreneurial development is one of the strategic growth tools in which the continent can evolve her economic potentiality.

  • Nigeria is expected to be the 3rd most populous country by 2050 with a population of over 300 million while several other African countries are projected to have more than doubled their population in the same time period.
  • Africa, in general, is expected to account for more than half of the world’s population growth between 2015 and 2050.
  • 41% of Africans are currently under the age of 15 and 60% of the continent is below the age of 25.
  • Now, 9 out of 10 working African youth are poor or near poor and over the next 10 years, only one in four of Africa’s youth are expected to find a wage job at best.
  • The youth population in Africa is expected to double, to over 830 million, by 2050.
  • In Nigeria alone, over 40 million additional jobs will be needed between now and 2030.

Entrepreneurship development is basically the process of improving the skill set as well as the knowledge of the entrepreneurs. The process of entrepreneurship development is nothing but helping the entrepreneurs develop their skills through training and application of that training.

Now, Tony Elumelu Foundation as an African non-profit organization.

TEF Chairman, Tony O. Elumelu.

Founded in  by Tony O. Elumelu and headquartered in Lagos. Nigeria Tony O. Elumelu belief that, with the right support, entrepreneurs can be empowered to contribute meaningfully to Africa’s prosperity and social development.

Tony Elumelu Foundation Fellow

It is has also been a great ĵmoment,  since the establishment of Tony Elumelu Foundation, in the areas of entrepreneurship, small and medium scale businesses development to the young continent of Africa.

UNDP Representative and TEF Chairman sighning the partnership agreement.

We are pleased to announce the partnership between the Tony Elumelu Foundation and UNDP to empower 100,000 additional entrepreneurs in 7 Sahel African countries over a 10-year period. This is in addition to the 10,000 African entrepreneurs that the Foundation is already committed to; stated in TEF News letter.

Starting this July, applications open for African entrepreneurs residing in the following countries: Nigeria (Northern), Niger, Chad, Cameroun, Mauritania, Mali and Burkina Faso.

With this partnership, the Tony Elumelu Foundation will give hope to the thousands of African entrepreneurs who have not been selected for its TEF Entrepreneurship Programme.

Across Africa, entrepreneurs are starting every size, and every type, of business. Without adequate entrepreneurship education, mentorship and business support, Africa faces a very uncertain future.

So, we are imploring international organizations, wealthy African descants to partner with the likes of TEF or follow their empowerment path in the areas of entrepreneurship development and employment growth strategies in Africa, that have helping thousand of Africans since inception of the programme.

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Nigeria Joins AfCFTA Member-states as Buhari Signs Agreement in Niamey

At last, Nigeria has given her consent to the establishment of the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) as President Muhammadu Buhari Sunday signed the agreement in Niamey, Niger Republic.

President Buhari [middle] signing the agreement in Niger Republic.

Buhari signed an agreement during the opening ceremony of the 12th Extra Ordinary Session of the Assembly of African Union Heads of State and Government.

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The Need for Increased Local Investment in Gas Sector, By Fashola

A former Minister of Power, Works and Housing, Babatunde Fashola, has called for increased local investments in the gas sector to realise its potential benefits.

Fashola (middle) at the inauguration of an indigenous gas company in Ogun State, Nigeria.

Fashola made the call at the inauguration of an indigenous gas company, GASCO Marine Limited, located at Onijanganjangan community in Abeokuta North Local Government area of Ogun State.

“We can continue to talk about gas flaring and carbon emissions and their negative impacts on the environment, but the situation will not change unless we do something about it,” Fashola said. The former minister, who commended the initiative, said such investment in gas would help government in protecting the environment for future generations. Stressing the advantages in the use of gas, Fashola said “there is about 60 per cent cost saving in the deployment of gas as an alternative to inefficient and polluting diesel.”

He also emphasised the benefit of employment generation through the value chain of gas production, processing, storage and distribution.

 

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Creating jobs in higher productivity sectors in Africa

Africa’s  working-age  population  is  projected  to increase from 705 million in 2018 to almost 1.0 billion by 2030. As millions of young people join the labor market, the pressure to provide decent jobs will  intensify.  At  the  current  rate  of  labor  force growth,  Africa  needs  to  create  about  12 million new  jobs  every  year  to  prevent  unemployment from  rising.  Strong  and  sustained  economic growth is necessary for generating employment, but  that  alone  is  not  enough.

The  source  and nature of growth also matter. Africa has achieved one of the fastest and most sustained growth spurts in the past two decades, yet  growth  has  not  been  pro-employment.  A 1 percent increase in GDP growth over 2000–14 was  associated  with  only  0.41 percent  growth in  employment,  meaning  that  employment  was expanding at a rate of less than 1.8 percent a year, or far below the nearly 3 percent annual growth in the labor force. If this trend continues, 100 million people  will  join  the  ranks  of  the  unemployed  in the young continent.

Africa  by  2030.  Without  meaningful  structural change, most of the jobs generated are likely to be in the informal sector, where productivity and wages are low and work is insecure, making the eradication of extreme poverty by 2030 a difficult task (African Development Bank Report 2019).

One of the most salient features of labor markets in Africa is the high prevalence of informal employment, the default option for a large majority of the growing labor force. On average, developing  countries  have  higher  shares  of  informal employment  than  developed  countries.  While data  on  informal  employment  are  sketchy,  it  is clear that Africa has the highest rate of estimated informality in the world, at 72 percent of nonagriculture employment  and as high as 90 percent in some countries.

Furthermore, there is no evidence that informality is declining in Africa. While evidence from other developing countries shows a fairly competitive labor market structure, Africa has a more segmented labor market. Segmented labor markets tend to improve with economic policies that facilitate labor mobility, a competitive environment for private sector operations, and better skill development programs.

 

Continue reading “Creating jobs in higher productivity sectors in Africa”

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The Central Bank of Nigeria set-up the Textile Revival and Implementation Committee

 

The Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) has set up the Textile Revival and Implementation Committee (TRIC) to revive at least 50 textile companies across the country by 2023, the committee would have the responsibility of resuscitating the country’s cotton belt, identify textile clusters, improve cotton production nationwide and boost power supply to textile firms across the clusters as Nigeria loses over $2bn annually to textile smuggling.

The CBN would partner with the Nigerian Customs Service to curb smuggling of textile goods; ensure general reduction of cost of doing business by eliminating multiple taxation; as well as ensure zero per cent duty for machineries needed by the textile industry and CBN has engaged 100,000 cotton farmers to cultivate 100,000 hectares of cotton for the 2019 season.

To revive the country’s cotton, textile and garment industry that would boost the local economy and create millions of jobs. Nigeria remains a big market for the textile industry but currently, the Nigeria cotton/textile industry is the third largest in Africa, next only to Egypt and South Africa, to reclaim this industry from smugglers the government should be ready to fight economic saboteurs because the Nigerian market has been flooded with imported textiles for many years.

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Akon to build an Eco-community in Senegal.

 

The signing of the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between SAPCO-Senegal SA and Akon Lighting Corporation to build an eco-community in Mbodiene, Senegal

This project on 50Ha with a number of infrastructures (villas, hotels, restaurants, apartments, schools whose educational system is based on sustainable development, leisure and recreation centre, centre for treatment and reuse of water uses, bioremediation, storage of energy, open labs connected to schools, universities and research centres, should be delivered  before 2022.

Senegal will diversify its tourism offer and will be endowed with an eco-city whose efficiency of energy consumption and the management of natural and sustainable resources will reduce the ecological footprint of our country. Better yet, it will lead to the creation of sustainable jobs for local people.

As I mentioned on LinkedIn a few days ago that Nigerian celebrities should emulate Akon, they should stop asking what the government can do for them rather what they can do for Nigeria, like what Akon is doing in Senegal and other African countries, it seems Mavin Records boss, Don Jazzy, is like-minded with Akon. In 2017, Don Jazzy launched Flobyt to give free internet to Nigerians, maybe Don Jazzy should collaborate with Akon to do something great in Nigeria.

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Unbalance China-Kenya economic ties

 

Chinese Foreign Minister Chen Yi meeting with Jomo Kenyatta on his visit to Kenya in February 1964.

Political ties history between China and Kenya

This bilateral relations date back to 14 December 1963, two days after the formal establishment of Kenyan independence, when China became the fourth country to open an embassy in Nairobi. Military exchange between the two countries has been increasing in the past decade. General Liu Jingsong, commander of the Lanzhou Military Region, led China’s first military delegation to Kenya in December 1996; Major General Nick Leshan, commander of the Kenyan air force, paid a return visit in 1997. Kenyan president Mwai Kibaki visited Beijing in August 2005.

In 2013, President Uhuru Kenyatta visited China. He held talks with his Chinese counterpart, Xi Jingping. Kenya and China ended up signing deals worth (US$5 billion).

The Premier of China, Li Keqiang visited Nairobi on his 2014 Africa tour. He and President Kenyatta witnessed the signing of 17 multi-billion deals to fund multiple infrastructural projects and various agreements. This included the establishment of a China-Africa Development Bank.

Economic relations between China and Kenya

Bilateral trade amounted to US$186.37 million in 2002; China exported US$180.576 million to Kenya, while only importing US$5.798 million of Kenyan goods, mainly black tea, coffee, and leather.

Early in 2006 Chinese President Hu Jintao signed an oil exploration contract with Kenya; the latest in a series of deals designed to expand Chinese overseas economic engagement with Africa. The deal allowed for China’s state-controlled offshore oil and gas company, CNOOC Ltd., to prospect for oil in Kenya, which is just beginning to drill its first exploratory wells on the borders of Sudan and Somalia and in coastal waters. No oil has been produced yet, and there has been no formal estimate of the possible reserves.

In April 2007, the Jinchuan Group, a state-owned metal manufacturing group, became the first Chinese company to enter Kenya’s mining sector, purchasing a 20% stake in Tiomin Kenya.

Debt-trap diplomacy

China lent Kenya extensive loans to build a standard gauge railway between Mombasa and Nairobi and highways in Kenya. In 2018, Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyata banned Chinese fish imports in response to public outcry over the unregulated importation of fish from China with Kenyan fishermen lamenting on how the foreign fish had flooded markets. The Chinese government use the Standard Gauge Railway as leverage against Kenya by threatening to completely pull funding for the project as well as threatening to impose trade sanctions. The Kenyan government soon after lifted the ban of Chinese fish imports.

The Kenyan government reportedly waived the sovereign immunity of its largest and most lucrative port,the Port of Mombasa, to be used as collateral for Chinese loans to construct the Standard Gauge Railway. It was reported in late December 2018 that Kenya may soon face default on Chinese loans, which could force Kenya to relinquish control of the port to China.

The Kenyan media has debated whether Chinese loans are worth the risk of falling into debt traps, drawing analogies with § Sri Lanka, and some commentators have argued that these loans could jeopardize Kenyan sovereignty.

From 2000 to 2011, there are approximately 65 Chinese official development finance projects identified in Kenya through various media reports.[16] These projects range from a 108 million USD grant from Chinese government to build the North and East Ring Road sections in Nairobi,[17] to a concessional loan to finance the construction of the Kenyatta University Teaching, Research and Referral Hospital Project in 2011. PRC state-owned China Radio International has operated radio station CRI Nairobi 91.9 FM since 2006.

The Garlic and other tensions arising  in Kenya

Farmers saying that, they are being undercut by producers who ship garlic almost 7,000 miles by sea from the world’s most populous country. They accuse Beijing of “garlic dumping” and say they can’t compete.

“If you go the markets you will see that 80 percent of garlic is from China,” said James Kamau, who runs a support group for fellow farmers.

Munyua and Kamau, 40, are among those who say that China’s growing presence in Kenya is having a negative impact on their lives, culture, and ability to make ends meet.

But garlic is only a microcosm of the impact Chinese influence and investment are having across Africa. Garlic is heaped on a mat beside a roadside stall in Kiawara, Kenya. The agriculture sector employs 40 percent of Kenya’s 49 million people and accounts for 26 percent of its economy.

In recent years, China has offered African countries loans, development aid and vast infrastructure projects as part of the Belt and Road Initiative, a $1.4 trillion network of modern trading routes. Kenya now owes 72 percent of its bilateral debt — or around $5.3 billion — to China. That’s around one-fifth of Kenya’s total external debt. With China holding the purse strings, it has the upper hand in any battle of wills — and garlic is just the latest foodstuff to be at the center of tensions here.

Eunice Ngima runs a small roadside stall selling garlic, onions, potatoes and other vegetables in Kiawara, Kenya.

In October, Beijing’s ambassador to Kenya threatened a trade war after Chinese fish imports were halted amid claims the market was being flooded.

China also threatened to pull funding for the second phase of a railway line connecting Nairobi with the major Indian Ocean port of Mombasa. China financed and built the initial stage of the project at an estimated cost of $3.2 billion, making it Kenya’s most expensive infrastructure project since independence from Britain in 1963.

Around three months later, Kenya relented and scrapped the import ban on Chinese fish. It cited market forces.

‘VIRGIN LAND’

Most garlic farms in Nyeri County, the remote area where Munyua is based, are small-scale operations.

The location of his small plot of land makes it difficult to transport produce after it is harvested in May and November.

Munyua has to rent donkeys to carry the garlic along steep mountain cliffs and through forested valleys before reaching a mud road. Kiawara, the nearest town, is a 30-minute drive away from his farm and a further 4-hour journey from the capital, Nairobi.

Garlic farmer Solomon Wambogo Munyua in his field in Embaringo; Munyua planted his garlic shoots in January, with the help of two workers he hires for the day at a cost of $3 each. There’s ample water supply and rich volcanic soil here on what Munyua calls “virgin land.” His plot typically yields up to 600 pounds of garlic per season — earning him as much as $400, enough to send his son and daughter to school. But he struggles to comprehend why many Kenyan consumers are opting for the rounder and smoother white Chinese garlic bulbs over locally grown produce. While Chinese garlic features larger cloves that are easier to peel by hand than the more intricate Kenyan variety, Munyua believes his country’s crop boasts a key advantage: its taste.

“Kenyan garlic is really sweet,” he said.

Garlic is also grown on an adjacent farm. Cousins James Kariuki Wahome, 36, and Peter Munene Ndurui, 40, rent half an acre of land here.

Garlic farmer Peter Munene Ndururi rests in his field in Embaringo, Kenya. They live around 12 miles from the farm, so every morning they have to pay to jump on the back of a motorbike to get them here.

They arrive around 8 a.m. every day — except Sundays when they go to church — as any earlier in the morning is too cold to work on their plot of land. Whistling young men who sell lunch bags to farmers containing bread, milk and water drop by around 1 p.m., and the cousins continue to toil until around 5 p.m.

“Life is very hard,” Wahome said.

Wahome admits that he often struggles to support his five children due to the price of garlic fluctuating in the local market. The influx of Chinese produce hasn’t helped. One pound of garlic earns farmers around 36 cents “when it’s good,” but that figure can be a low as 23 cents at times, according to Wahome.

Munyua is among the farmers so worried about the imported bulbs that they want the government to take action, as it did with fish last year.

“Chinese garlic should be taxed high so that the Kenyan farmer can earn something,” Munyua said.

CORRUPTION

Garlic is only part of the picture. Kenya exported $96.88 million in goods to China, but imported a total of $3.79 billion. The Kenyan government’s horticultural crops directorate said supply and demand were among the factors when it comes to the availability of foreign garlic.

“As long as we don’t produce enough garlic, we may still continue buying garlic from China,” a spokesperson said, adding that the lack of sufficient farming knowledge and technology and limited machinery were also challenges in Kenya. Kenya currently imports around 50 percent of its garlic, according to official statistics.

Fields of garlic in Embaringo, Kenya. While African governments have embraced China with open arms, Munyua questions whether the “win-win” notion that underpins the relationship is a reality.

“Is it beneficial for the common man?” he asked, claiming that one group benefits the most from China’s presence in Kenya. “The politicians.”

Transparency International ranks Kenya among the most corrupt countries in the world — 144th out of 180 nations on last year’s index.

Charles Gichuhi Ngari, a garlic farmer and village elder, was a child when the British battled Mau Mau rebels in the 1950s.

Charles Gichuhi Ngari sits with his wife, Esther Wairimu Gichuhi, and granddaughter Rose Wamboi Njoroge at their home in Embaringo, Kenya.Nichole Sobecki / for NBC News

The anti-colonial rebels used to hide from the British military not far from today’s garlic farms.

These lush green hills were known as “the white heights,” because they were full of white British settlers who took the best land.

“When black people heard, ‘this is not their land,’ they started fighting for it,” Ngari recounted.

He sees modern parallels.

“I have never gone to China, but China is a superpower,” Ngari said. “I just get up every morning to go to my farm … I see the news, ‘Kenya has borrowed this money from [China].’ I cannot tell you where the money goes.”

He highlighted the lack of local infrastructure that makes it so tough to compete with imports shipped from overseas.

“There is no road here,” Ngari said. “The money has been eaten.”

https://www.nbcnews.com/news/world/china-s-relationship-africa-illustrated-garlic-tensions-n994486

According to Enric Olander on LinkedIn, China often talks about how its relationship with countries in Africa and along its Belt and Road Initiative is “win-win.” In China’s view, that means Beijing provides these countries with badly-needed capital and access to its vast market which, supposedly, benefits both sides equally.

But the situation in Kenya tells a very different story, one where “win-win” increasingly looks like China wins twice.

Consider the following:

1) DEBT: From 2014 to 2018, China’s lending to Kenya tripled to more than $6 billion. While this capital is incredibly important for Kenya to build vital infrastructure projects, these are nonetheless interest-bearing loans that will pay China sizable dividends over the long term.

2) TRADE: Kenya buys a lot from China but China buys almost nothing from Kenya. In 2018, Kenya exported just $97 million worth of goods to China but imported a stunning $3.8 billion. Beijing is going to have to be much more proactive about equalizing the balance of trade or else it just won’t be sustainable for a country like Kenya.

3) MARKET ACCESS: While China restricts the import of a lot of Kenyan agricultural products, there are many fewer limitations on low-cost Chinese imports like garlic & fish that flood the market & put enormous pricing pressure on local producers.

It is very clear,i that most of the African countries China is dealing with may have been having similar issues. Economic tensions ariving due to the bilitary relalationships with China by underdeveloped countries is a negative economic effect. Great attention should be put in place, in order to prevent future occurence of such.  African integration is paramount to strengthened now than never. Unless, all these toxic economic situation will continue. The New-world order is exploitative, African leaders should rise intellectually, forget thinking of dying in office and resist these modern slavery.

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