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Much has been written about business executives as “organization men.” According to this view, typical company managers no longer display the individualism of earlier generations of entrepreneurs. They seek protection in committee-made decisions and tailor their personalities to please their superiors; they aim to be good “team” members, adopting the firm’s values as their own.
The view is commonly held that there are companies—and entire industries—that have discouraged innovative ideas. The real question now is whether companies will develop policies to encourage autonomy and adventure someness among managers.
In Japan, where the employees of large corporations tend to remain with the same employer throughout their working lives, the corporations recruit young men upon their graduation from universities and train them as company cadets. Those among the cadets who demonstrate ability and a personality compatible with the organization are later selected as managers. Because of the seniority system, many are well past middle age before they achieve high status. There are signs that the system is weakening, however, as efforts are more often made to lift promising young men out of low-echelon positions.
Criticism of the traditional method has been stimulated by the example of some of the newer corporations and of those owned by foreign capital. The few men in the Japanese business world who have emerged as personalities are either founders of corporations, managers of family enterprises, or small businessmen. They share a strong inclination to make their own decisions and to minimize the role of directors and boards.
Source: Encyclopedia Britannica